Fatty Liver Disease Alcohol Related – Fatty liver, commonly known as fatty liver disease, occurs when excess fat accumulates in the liver. Fatty liver disease is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease in developed countries, affecting up to one in four people. Fatty liver disease begins as simple steatosis, also known as steatosis, and can progress to more advanced stages such as steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and eventually cirrhosis.
There are two main causes of fatty liver disease. alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Fatty infiltration of the liver is not related to other known causes such as alcohol, drugs, or genetic disorders. .
Fatty Liver Disease Alcohol Related
Alcoholic liver disease refers to liver damage caused by excessive alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption is considered excessive if you consume 4 or more drinks per day, 14 or more drinks per week for men, or 3 or more drinks per day and 7 drinks per week for women. It is usually caused by chronic alcohol misuse. However, it can also occur in people who drink large amounts of alcohol over a short period of time, a condition known as binge drinking.
What Is Fatty Liver Disease?
When alcohol enters the body, it is metabolized by the liver into acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde is a highly reactive metabolite that damages cellular molecules such as proteins and DNA. Alcohol metabolism increases free fatty acid production and decreases fatty acid oxidation. Both contribute to fat accumulation in the liver.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, on the other hand, usually affects people with metabolic syndrome, which refers to a combination of cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. The exact cause of NAFLD is not clear, but insulin resistance appears to play an important role. In metabolic syndrome, insulin receptors in various tissues, including the liver, become less responsive to insulin. As a result, the liver secretes less lipids into the bloodstream. It increases the synthesis and uptake of free fatty acids from the blood, causing fat to accumulate within liver cells called hepatocytes.
Regardless of the cause of fatty liver disease, over time the fat within liver cells becomes more susceptible to breakdown and inflammation, resulting in liver cell damage. The steatosis and inflammatory process together is called steatohepatitis. Chronic inflammation and liver damage can lead to liver fibrosis and the development of scar tissue, known as cirrhosis. Because cirrhosis is usually irreversible, it is often referred to as “end-stage” or “late-stage” liver disease.
People with fatty liver disease usually have no symptoms. Even in the advanced stages of steatohepatitis, there may be no symptoms. If symptoms are present, they are often vague, such as fatigue or fatigue. Severe liver damage may cause hepatomegaly or enlargement of the liver, pain in the upper right quadrant, and jaundice. When liver function deteriorates and cirrhosis develops, symptoms of other diseases may appear, such as esophageal varices, ascites, bruises, and liver cancer.
Recent Advances Of Sterile Inflammation And Inter Organ Cross Talk In Alcoholic Liver Disease
Fatty liver is often suspected in people who have abnormal liver function tests, such as elevated liver enzymes (such as aspartate transaminase [AST] or alanine transaminase [ALT]). In people with alcohol-induced liver disease, AST is usually greater than ALT. In addition to elevated AST and ALT, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) may also be elevated. If fatty liver disease is suspected, imaging tests such as an ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI can be used to check for fatty infiltration and make the diagnosis. In addition, a liver biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and assess the severity of the disease.
Depending on the biopsy findings, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease can be classified as either nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFL) or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFL refers to the presence of fatty liver without evidence of inflammation. This stage is characterized by large lipid droplets within the liver cells, giving the liver a large, soft, yellow, and oily appearance. On the other hand, NASH is the presence of inflammation with hepatic steatosis and hepatocellular damage, resulting in additional tissue formation such as hepatocyte ballooning and the presence of Mallory-Denk bodies (tangles of intermediate filaments found within the cytoplasm). Pathological changes occur. of hepatocytes).
Treatment for fatty liver depends on the underlying cause. Treatment of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease primarily contributes to insulin resistance through a healthy diet, active lifestyle, weight loss, and, if necessary, medications to lower blood sugar levels (such as metformin) Focus on reversing risk factors. . Treatment of alcohol-induced fatty liver disease involves eliminating alcohol intake. Steatosis, and to a lesser extent steatohepatitis, are generally reversible when the underlying cause is addressed, but this is generally not the case when fibrosis or cirrhosis occurs.
Fatty liver, or fatty liver disease, occurs when fat accumulates in the liver. The two main causes are alcohol-induced liver disease. and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The diagnosis of fatty liver is based on abnormal liver function tests, imaging tests that demonstrate fatty infiltration, and a biopsy. Treatment focuses on addressing the underlying cause, including lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, exercise, and eliminating alcohol consumption, depending on the cause.
Study Reveals Links Between Fatty Liver Disease, Liver Cancer
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Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
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Powell, E.E., Wong, V.W.-S., and Rinella, M. (2021). Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Lancet, 397(10290), 2212–2224. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32511-3 Open Access Policy Institutional Open Access Program Special Issue Guidelines Editorial Process Research and Publication Ethics Article Processing Fees Awards Recommendations
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By Grayson W. Way Grayson W. Way Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1 , Kaitlyn G. Jackson Kaitlyn G. Jackson Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2 , Shreya R. Muscu Shreya R. Muscu Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2 and Huiping Zhou Huiping Zhou Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2, 3, *
Received: March 3, 2022 / Revised: April 11, 2022 / Accepted: April 14, 2022 / Issued: April 18, 2022
Recent Advances In Alcohol Related Liver Disease (ald): Summary Of A Gut Round Table Meeting
Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is a group of diseases that develop and progress due to chronic alcohol consumption. ALD ranges in increasing severity from fatty liver to alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and alcohol-related cirrhosis (AC), and in some cases can lead to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). ALD remains a significant health burden and is now the leading cause of liver transplantation in the United States. ALD induces biological, microbial, physical, metabolic, and inflammatory changes in patients that vary depending on the severity of the disease. Deaths from ALD have increased in recent years and are predicted to continue to increase. Current treatment centers focus on abstinence and symptom management, with few solutions to the progression of the disease. Due to metabolic disturbances and dysbiosis in the gut microbiota in ALD, bile acid (BA) signaling and metabolism are also significantly affected, making them important for disease progression in ALD and other liver disease states such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. play a role. (NAFLD). In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which alcohol intake induces liver injury and the role of BA-mediated signaling in the pathogenesis of ALD.
The use of alcohol is estimated to date back to 8000 BC, with the earliest evidence in the form of chemical analysis dating from 7000 to 6600 BC . Alcohol has been used as a medicine, ointment, cleansing agent, and drunk.
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