2000 F250 5.4 Performance Upgrades – Like many new projects, when Ford Motor Company was developing its newest V8 engine to compete with the likes of the LS and Hemi, the company asked for naming suggestions. One of the V8 engineers found a piece of Ford history that he thought was special enough that Ford should name the engine after him. The first four-valve V8 produced by Ford was in the 1960s for a race car driven by AJ Foyt. The car, known as the Coyote, was driven to victory in the 1967 and 1977 Indy 500s. In total, Foyt won 25 times out of the 141 races in which he participated. The response to the name Coyote was immediately positive and it stuck.
Based on the architecture of the 4.6L and 5.4L Modular V8s, the “Coyote” V8 platform was the latest evolution of a performance engine from the Ford Motor Company in 2010. At the time the first generation engine was being designed , were the Ford engineers. a V8 engine was needed, specifically for the Mustang GT, which would compete with the GM 6.2L LS3 used in the new Chevrolet Camaro and the new Chrysler 6.4L Hemi in the Charger, Challenger and Grand Cherokee.
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Since this engine replaced the already popular 4.6L and 5.4L Modular engines, the Coyote engine had to stay close to the same physical size of the outgoing 4.6L, and share other specifications such as bore spacing, deck height, bell housing bolt. pattern, etc. for the machine tools to use an existing Modular production line. The term ¬Modular was always thought to refer to the design of the engine or the ability to share certain parts. However, the correct name was given from the manufacturing process where the tooling could be changed in a matter of hours to manufacture different versions of the engine family.
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Debuting in the 2011 model year, the Coyote features a 5.0L, naturally aspirated V8 engine with a dual overhead cam (DOHC) design. The Coyote’s architecture was also Ford’s first implementation of its Twin Independent Variable Cam Timing (TI-VCT) technology on a V8 engine, a feature that greatly improves fuel economy and power delivery while reducing emissions. Today the Coyote has gone through several generations of engines, which can be found in the Ford Mustang trucks, the GT350, the GT500 and the Ford F-150.
Despite its relatively small displacement, the 5.0L Coyote is capable of creating good horsepower, and for Mustang enthusiasts, the Coyote engine is much more than that. From its history, to its name, to the engineering components that allow the Coyote engine to produce impressive power with a relatively small displacement, people have many questions about it. We caught up with a few engine builders to get their thoughts on ten-year-old engine power.
Ford’s first Coyote engine was built in 2010. With increased pressure for engines with more power and more economy, it was clear that a major improvement in technology was needed, and that was not possible if Ford chose stay with the traditional system. , small block engine.
Ford had been making Modular engines since the early 90’s and the engine design allowed flexibility that small blocks couldn’t. Ford could easily change the tooling to create engine variants to suit different purposes, and thus, the Modular engine improved greatly from the first iteration in 1990.
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But, Ford had exciting new technology that he couldn’t wait to add to the Modular designs. That technology was Twin Independent Variable Cam Timing, and 2010 was the first year Ford added it to some of its engines, including the Coyote.
Although F-150s would eventually be fitted with Coyote engines as well, they were originally developed with the Mustang GT in mind, and the 2011 GT was the first car with a Coyote. As of 2011, every GT Mustang features a Coyote engine and is available as an option in upgraded F-150s.
The Gen I Coyote engine has an aluminum block with cross-bolted main bearing caps and thick cylinder heads for strength. The block incorporates piston cooling jets and a unique oil drain back and windage control for high rpm performance.
“The bore centers were still the same as the Modular, so the factory could still make these things cheap,” says Michael Rauscher of L&M Engines. “It’s still a 3.937˝ bore center. The cast block was different with a different configuration from previous Modules.”
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The Coyote shares a similar platform to the 4.6L, except the bore diameter increased from 3.54˝ to 3.63˝ and the stroke increased from 3.54˝ to 3.65˝, giving the Coyote a 302.1 cid. The crankshaft is not interchangeable with the 4.6L either, as the main web designs of the Coyote block are wider. The crankshaft is forged steel and is made from the same forged material as the 4.6L.
The biggest change to the crankshaft is the longer snout to accommodate the billet gear for the oil pump, and with the crank pin moved to increase the stroke, the crankshaft also has straight-thru oil, less complicated than the cross-drilled passages of the 4.6L and 5.4L.
The crank sensor wheel is located at the back compared to the front design of the other Modules and the relocation of the crank sensor creates a more stable signal. The firing order for the Coyote changed from 1-3-7-2-6-5-4-8 to 1-5-4-8-6-3-7-2. With all the changes on this new platform, there is no interchange of engine parts with its previous predecessors. However, Gen I and Gen II Coyote engines are compatible. The Gen III versions are not.
The Gen I Coyote also has aluminum cylinder heads and the engine has an 11:1 compression ratio, which was slightly more than the typical 8:1 or 9:1 compression ratios of most engines at the time .
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One obstacle Ford faced in producing the engine was making more power and efficiency than the 4.6L, which would be achieved by getting more airflow through the cylinder heads. To allow for airflow, the cylinder head ports had to be redesigned. Ford came up with the idea of moving the camshafts out into the cylinder heads, which would put the camshafts over the head bolts. This would allow changes in the port design to adjust the airflow required to achieve volumetric efficiency.
“The cylinder heads were a completely new deal and were greatly improved in terms of efficiency,” says Rauscher. “It also came out with four variable camshafts, which was new to the Modular platform. The intake cameras were parked on full throttle, so they would only go forward. The leaky cameras were fully parked and both of them would move at 50 degree authority.”
The valve would now be a light cylinder type finger follower with a hydraulic lash adjuster with a 2:1 ratio. Both the intake and exhaust cams would be controlled separately via the TI-VCT. The camshafts are controlled by the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) using cam-torque phasers. Separate phasing of the intake and exhaust cams allows for smoother idle and fuel economy as well as quick response at high idle.
“The big difference from before was the valvetrain geometry,” he says. “It had a smaller roller, a slightly smaller rocker arm and a larger aspect ratio, which means a smaller base circle on the cam. It had a lot more valve timing than previous Modular engines, so it was more performance oriented.”
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VCT is a technology developed by Ford that allows for better fuel efficiency and lower emissions. Variable or variable camshaft timing is achieved by electronically changing the camshaft timing by speeding it up or slowing it down as needed based on engine load and rpm.
VCT was usually used on the exhaust camshaft, which resulted in better emissions, or the intake camshaft, which resulted in more power. Of course, though, most people want better power and emissions, so the question was how to allow variable timing on the intake and exhaust valves and allow them to operate independently of each other. .
The TI-VCT improved VCT technology by allowing camshafts to act independently. The result was improved power and torque. The Gen I Coyote engine was capable of 412 horsepower and 390 ft.-lb. of torque. It was so powerful that they had to figure out how to improve the walls of the engine. Instead of increasing the thickness of the engine’s walls, meshes were inserted into the walls to allow the block to handle the increased power output of the stronger engine.
The Coyote differs from other TI-VCT engines put out in the same period in that it also uses the Borg-Warner Cam-Torque Actuation (CTA) to use torsional energy to rotate the camshaft instead of cam phasing. oil pressure, like Hondas have.
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The technical details mean that the first Coyote engine was incredibly powerful for its size based on some truly creative engineering ideas. The Gen I 5.0L Coyote engine was able to create as much power as a 6.4L Hemi with much less displacement.
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